- Early Scan (<11w)

- 11 - 14 weeks scan

- 18 - 24 weeks scan

- Late scans (>28w)

- Fetal Head/cranium

Fetal Heart

Fetal Abdomen

- Fetal spine/limbs

-Electronic FHR montoring and Non-stress test

This website is part of the comprehensive online

Obstetric and Gynecology Atlas and Gallery

Hundereds of carefully categorized obgyn illustrations, and real life ultrasound scan images and clips from clinical practice with desription, user comments lightbox..etc.

Fetal well-being is a fetus of:

1- Normal Growth

2- No Congenital fetal malformations seen 

2- Free of distress

Fetal distress is fetus suffering from any

 or all of the following:

  - Hypoxia = Reduced oxygen tension

  - Asphyxia = Hypoxia + Rise of CO2

  - Acidosis = Asphyxia + accumulation of

    acid metabolite products of anaerobic


  - Ischemia = Reduced blood flow


The Assessment of Fetal distress is actually collection of information about:

1- Clinical background of the patient and Fetal

activity: Tools to diagnose fetal distress should be

interpreted in context with the clinical background 

of the patient. A fetus with normal fetal kick-chart

and normal growth pattern and average amniotic

fluid and showing normal activity during ultrasound

scan, is hardly suffering  from distress.

2- Ultrasound study of


- Fetal growth pattern,

- Amniotic fluid  volume and consistency,

- Placental grading

3- Doppler study:

- Uteroplacental Flow (Mainly Umbilical artery)

- Changes in fetal circulation

4- Electronic fetal heart monitoring


- Antenatal NST and BPP

- Intrapartum CTG (Cardiotocography)


- Intrapartum STAN analysis (ST segment